Welcome to Universal Dialog


Below is a list of terms that can help to get you comfortable with the way we talk about projects.



Accredited translator:

Translator who has received accreditation from a professional institute such as the ITI or the ATA. Accreditation – a requirement for association membership – is usually issued on the basis of examination and experience.


Modifying a text to make it suitable for a different purpose, target readership, region or country. Regional adaptation is a part of localization. In translation, the adaptation can be carried out, for example by the translator, an editor or a copywriter. Whether it is best to adapt the source text before translation or the translated target text depends on the situation.

A language:

The mother-tongue or language of habitual use of a translator or interpreter. (cf. B language and C language)


Publisher of the Deja; Vu translation memory program.


Target audience


Text in the source or target language providing background information about the subject matter of the text to be translated.

Background information:

Information relating to the subject matter of the source text or the topic of discussion. Facilitates the translator’s or interpreter’s task by providing context, terminology, definitions, etc.

Back translation:

A literal translation of a translation. Helps a translation consultant determine whether the original meaning has been preserved in the target language.

B language:

A language that a translator or interpreter can speak, read and write almost as well as their native language (or A language), and well enough to translate into as well as out of. (See also C language)


Calibrated page:

Standard page

Certified translation

C Language:

A language that a translator or interpreter can read and understand well enough to translate out of, but cannot write or speak well enough to translate or interpret into. (See also A language and B language).

Computer-aided translation (CAT):

computer-assisted ~, machine-aided or -assisted Translation with the aid of computer programs, such as translation memory, terminology management and localization tools, designed to reduce the translatorÕs workload and increase consistency of style and terminology. Not to be confused with machine translation!

Conference interpreter:

Interpreter with highly specialized skills who provides simultaneous interpretation of a speakers words in one direction only from one language into another.

Conference translator

Consecutive interpreting:

Oral translation of a speaker’s words into another language when the speaker has finished speaking or pauses for interpreting. More formal than ad hoc interpreting and used, for example in formal business meetings, for negotiations, training sessions or lectures. (cf. simultaneous interpreting)

Controlled language:

Language with a restricted vocabulary and restricted rules of formulation. Used, for example, in technical documentation to make the text easier to understand for users or for non-native speakers and to facilitate machine translation.


Writing of advertising or publicity copy. It cannot be stressed too strongly that advertising copy will not translate satisfactorily due to the different cultural contexts and advertising cultures of other countries and regions. Adverts for foreign countries should therefore always be produced in those countries. There are some advertising agencies who provide this service.

Court interpreter:

Interpreter with special subject knowledge, providing interpretation during legal proceedings. Requirements regarding accreditation and certification for court interpreting vary from country to country.


Deja Vu:

Translation memory program, published by Atril.

Desktop publishing (DTP):

DTP is offered by translators and translation companies/agencies as a value-added service to provide a one-stop solution for customers’ publishing needs. Special applications are required to handle languages that use different typescripts.

Dominant language:

Language of habitual use





Freelance translator:

Self-employed translator, who may undertake work for translation agencies, localization companies and/or directly for end clients. Often specializes in one or more particular fields, such as legal, financial, commercial or technical.

Free translation:

Translation in which more emphasis is given to the overall meaning of the text than to the exact wording (cf. literal translation).



Producing a rough or outline translation of a text to provide an insight into the subject and overall content of the source text. Being less expensive and less time-consuming than a “proper” (or “custom”) translation, gisting can be used, for example, to determine whether a text contains useful information before a custom translation is commissioned. The term gisting is sometimes used in connection with machine translation, which is used by some translation providers for that purpose.


The process of developing and manufacturing products intended for worldwide distribution. Most commonly applied to software, but also used for websites and other publications and products, it covers two aspects: internationalization and localization.


An invaluable tool for the translator. Beside making use of the wealth of specialized mono- and multilingual online-glossaries on the Internet, most translators compile and maintain their own subject-, customer- and project-specific glossaries. Companies publishing documentation in several languages can also benefit from maintaining multi-language glossaries of their own. This not only makes translators work easier, but – by reducing the amount of terminology research required – speeds up subsequent translation projects. In addition, it ensures consistent and correct terminology usage in all languages. Some translators and most translation companies offer glossary compilation and maintenance, either as a separate service or as part of a translation agreement. (See the Resources for translators page for lists of online glossaries and dictionaries.)


Inbound text:

Text intended for internal use, generally not seen by people outside the originating organization. Includes internal correspondence, memos, work instructions, etc.


The process of designing or redesigning a product (e.g. software) to allow its localization for other countries with a minimum of changes to its text content or program code. Internationalized software applications, for example, store their text in external resource files and use character encoding methods (such as Unicode) that support character sets for many different languages.


Provides oral (spoken) translation of a speaker’s words from one language into another. (cf. translator)

Interpreting, interpretation:

The act of rendering spoken words from one language into another. (cf. translating; see also simultaneous interpreting, consecutive interpreting)



Often used as a measure of line or page length in defining the size of a translation job. Includes all visible characters as well as spaces and line breaks/paragraph marks. (See also standard line and standard page.)


Language Engineering:

The Euromap Report, published in 1998 on behalf of the EUROMAP Consortium, defines language engineering as “the application of knowledge of written and spoken language to the development of systems able to recognize, understand, interpret, and generate human language.” These language technologies include computer-aided translation, speech recognition and synthesis, as well as semantic searches and information retrieval.

Language of habitual use:

similar: dominant language
The language that a person is most familiar with, usually the language spoken in the country in which the person lives. More appropriate than mother-tongue as a measure of a translator or interpreterÕs ability to work into the given language. A term native speaker is used in this context.

Liaison interpreter:

Interpreter who provides – usually consecutive interpretation between two languages in both directions. May be affiliated to the host company and act as facilitator in negotiations or undertake some PR activities.

Linguistic adaptation:


Literal translation:

Translation that closely adheres to the wording and construction of the source text. A literal translation of continuous text usually appears “stilted” and unnatural and is therefore to be avoided unless there is a specific reason for translating literally. (cf. free translation)

Literary translator:

Translator specializing in the translation of literature, such as fiction, biographies and poetry.


The process of adapting a product (usually software, but also, for example, websites) to a specific locale, i.e. to the language, cultural norms, standards, laws and requirements of the target country.


Machine-aided translation:

Computer-aided translation

Machine translation (MT):

1. Translation produced by a computer program; 2. Use of a translation program to translate text without human input in the actual translation process. The quality of machine-translated text, in terms of terminology, meaning and grammar, varies depending on the nature and complexity of the source text, but is never good enough for publication without extensive editing. Machine translation (usually using highly customized MT programs) is occasionally used by some translators and translation companies to assist them in their work, but rarely to translate entire documents. Some search engines, e.g. AltaVista, interface with a translation program to provide translations of websites. To get an idea of what MT can and cannot do, visit Babelfish, which provides a free online MT service (for link, see Online Resources page). Not to be confused with computer-aided translation!


One’s native language. Often used as an indicator of a translator or interpreter’s ability to translate into a particular language. Because a person who has lived in another country for many years (perhaps from childhood) may be more fluent in their “new” language than they are in their original mother-tongue, the terms language of habitual use, dominant language and native language are often used instead.


Terminology program published by Trados. A component of the Translator’s Workbench translation memory program, but also available as a separate product.


Native language:


Native speaker:

A person with native speaker competence in a particular language.

Native speaker competence:

Oral and written command of a language equivalent to that of a person who not only learned the language as a child and has continued to use it as his/her language of habitual use, but who also has had some language training.


Outbound text:

Text intended for publication, i.e. for a readership outside the originating organization. Essentially designed to sell products and services. Includes PR articles, brochures, catalogues, advertising copy, etc.


Parallel text:

Text in the source or target language that is comparable to the text to be translated in terms of subject matter or text type. Includes previous translations of the same type of text.

Plain English:

A form of English that is clear, concise, direct, and natural. Advocated by an increasing number of people as a style of language that should be used by authors of technical texts Ð such as user manuals, legal documents, articles and speeches Ð, plain English is easier and more enjoyable to read than legalese or texts laden with technical jargon and complex sentences for both experts and laypersons. (Ffi. see the Resources page.)

Proof-reading, proofreading:

Strictly, checking a proof before printing to ensure that no mistakes have been made in typesetting. The term is often used by translators in the sense of revising. When typesetting a translated text, it is advisable to let the translator who performed the translation proofread the typeset document, especially when the text is written in a language foreign to the typesetter.



Target readership


Reading a text to identify errors, inconsistencies, incorrect grammar and punctuation, poor or inappropriate style, and, in the case of a translation, conformance with the source text, and making appropriate changes and corrections to the text. In general, the number of revision stages is proportional to the demands on the text quality: a translation intended for publication may, for example, be revised by the translator and by one or two third parties (e.g. the author, a subject expert, a second translator, an editor), whereas an internal memo may not require any revision after translation. (What exactly revising and editing entail and how they differ is the subject of much debate. What is important is that the person commissioning the work communicates clearly what is expected of the editor.)


Simultaneous interpreting:

Oral translation of a speaker’s words into another language while the speaker is speaking. The interpreter usually sits in a booth and uses audio equipment. (cf. consecutive interpreting)

Software localisation:


Source language:

Language in which the text to be translated is written.

Source text:

The text to be translated.

Specialised language competence

Familiarity with the relevant subject matter and command of its special language conventions.

Standard line:

A standard measure of the size of a text. The standard line length varies from country to country. In Germany, for example, it is usually 55 keystrokes, in Belgium 60. Translation projects are often priced on a per line basis.

Standard page, calibrated page:

A standard measure of the size of a text, used esp. in the publishing industry and in literary translation. The standard page length may vary from country to country and depending on the sector, but is generally in the region of 1500 to 1800 keystrokes. Translation projects are sometimes priced on a per page basis, although – except in the case of literary translation Ð this practice is becoming less common, being replaced by the standard line.


Target audience:

The group of people that an interpreter addresses. Used mostly in connection with simultaneous interpreting. Sometimes used (incorrectly) in the sense of target readership

Target language:

Language into which a text is to be translated.

Target readership:

The group of people for which a text is translated, for example subject experts, novices, prospective customers. It is important to specify the target readership when commissioning a translation so that the translator can choose an appropriate style and vocabulary.

Target text:

The translation, i.e. the result of the translation process.


Terminology program published by Star. A component of the Transit translation memory program, but also available as a separate product.

Text function

The function served by a text, e.g. to sell a product, to provide instruction on the use of a product, to convey information about an event. It is important to specify the text function when commissioning a translation to so that the translator can choose an appropriate style and vocabulary.

Text type:

Class of text (e.g. abstract, news report, light fiction, commentary) with specific characteristics of style, sentence formation, terminology, etc.

Text style:

Text type


Translation memory exchange format, designed to allow easier exchange of translation memory data between tools and/or translation vendors with little or no loss of critical data during the process. Supported by the latest versions of most leading translation memory programs. For a full specification, click here


Publishers of the Translator’s Workbench translation memory program.


Something written, especially copied from one medium to another, as a typewritten version of dictation


Translation memory program published by Star.

Translating, translation:

The act of rendering written text from one language into another. (cf. interpreting)

Translating competence:

Ability to render text into the target language correctly in terms of language, subject matter and idiomatic style, having regard to the text function of both the source text and the target text.

Translation agency:

Provides translation and interpreting services, acting as middleman between customers and freelance translators. May offer value-added services such as typesetting, publishing, project management.

Translation company:

Provides translation services using mainly in-house translators. May specialize in a particular field Ð such as legal, patents or technical Ð and may offer value-added services such as typesetting, publishing, project management. The term is often used synonymously with translation agency.

Translation Manager:

1. Translation memory program published by IBM; 2. (Syn.: project manager) person in charge of managing a translation project. In large translation projects, the translation manager is responsible for liaison between customer and translators, coordinating the translation work (which may be carried out by several translators for each language), maintaining the terminology database, ensuring consistency of style and terminology, etc.

Translation memory (TM):

Computer-aided translation program that stores translated sentences (translation units or segments) with their respective source segments in a database (usually called the “memory”). For each new segment to be translated, the program scans the database for a previous source segment that matches the new segment exactly or approximately (fuzzy match) and, if found, suggest the corresponding target segment as a possible translation. The translator can then accept, modify or reject the suggested translation.


Renders written text from one or more languages into an other language, usually into her language of habitual use. May offer additional services, such as desktop publishing or proofreading. (cf. interpreter)

Translator’s Workbench:

Translation memory program published by Trados.


Transforming text from one script to another, usually based on phonetic equivalences. For example, Russian text might be transliterated into the Latin script so that it can be pronounced by English speakers.



Character encoding standard which, unlike ASCII, uses not 8 but 16 bit character encoding, making possible the representation of virtually all existing character sets (e.g. Latin, Cyrillic, Japanese, Chinese). The use of Unicode simplifies multiple language document and program creation. (See also internationalization.)


Voice-over, voiceover:

Commentary in, e.g., a film, television program, video, or commercial spoken by an unseen narrator. Foreign-language voice-over consists of two parts: translating the narrative, whereby, e.g., timing (coordinating the voice with the film sequence) is an important consideration; recording the voice-over, which may be performed by a linguist with special training and/or expertise or by an actor. Voice-over services are provided by some translators and translation agencies/companies.



Similar to simultaneous interpreting, whereby the interpreter sits close to the listener and whispers the translation without technical aids.

Word count:

A standard measure of the size of a text. Translation projects, for example, are often priced on a per-word (US) or per-1000-word (GB) basis.



ACPI: Association of Court and Police Interpreters (UK)
AIIC: International Association of Conference Interpreters
AITC: International Association of Conference Translators
AITI: Associate of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting
AITI: Italian Translators and Interpreters Association
ATA: American Translators Association
ATC: Association of Translation Companies (UK)
BDÜ: German Interpreters and Translators Association
CAT: Computer-aided translation
DTP: Desktop publishing
FIT: International Federation of Translators
IoL: Institute of Linguists (UK)
ITA: Irish Translators’ Association
ITI: Institute of Translation and Interpreting
LISA: Localisation Industry Standards Association
MIL: Member of the Institute of Linguists
MITI: Member of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting
MT: Machine translation
NWTN: North West Translators Network (UK)
TA: Translators Association (a division of the Society of Authors)
TBX: TermBase eXchange (exchange format for terminology databases)
TM: Translation memory
TMX: Translation memory exchange format